Bigger and bigger battlefields

In The Face of Battle, John Keegan noted how the environment of combat changed over the course of history.  One way it changed in America during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is immediately apparent—battles got a whole lot bigger.

If you had four and a half hours to lead a tour of a major Civil War battlefield, what would you highlight?  You’d never have this problem with a Rev War battlefield, at least not a Southern Campaign site.  You could probably lead three back-to-back-to-back tours of King’s Mountain or Cowpens in four and a half hours.

Take a look at King’s Mountain, Cowpens, and Gettysburg on Google Maps, all at the same zoom level.  The Cowpens field would likely fit between the Round Tops and Emmitsburg Road, and I think you’d still have room for King’s Mountain.

Numbers engaged illustrate the difference, too.  Greene had something like 4,500 men at Guilford Courthouse; the Confederates fielded ten times that many at Shiloh.  Washington had over 14,000 at Brandywine, which sounds like a lot until you consider that the Union suffered over 12,000 casualties at Antietam.

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Filed under American Revolution, Civil War, Museums and Historic Sites

Statehood Days this weekend at Marble Springs

If you’re in the Knoxville area and you’re looking for something to do this weekend, stop by Marble Springs State Historic Site for Statehood Days.  They’ll have living history demonstrations, food, and tours of the historic buildings.  Here’s the schedule.

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Filed under Appalachian History, Museums and Historic Sites, Tennessee History

I’m going to have to sit down and come to terms with this

So for a couple days a rumor’s been circulating that this happens in Jurassic World (SPOILERS AHEAD, obviously):

Business is good at the park, but the powers that be start to dream up new ways to keep customers coming back; namely by splicing Dino DNA with other dinos (and other species). That becomes the problem. They splice together a T-Rex, raptor, snake, and cuttlefish to create a monstrous new dino that, of course, gets loose and terrorizes the park.

Which is weird, because (as fellow JP aficionados will recall) they tried this idea with the action figure line and it was kind of ridiculous.

Well, today comes confirmation that the rumor was true, and there will indeed be a tyrannosaur-raptor-cuttlefish hybrid in Jurassic World.

Normally I would squeal with girlish delight at the prospect of a movie with a tyrannosaur-raptor-cuttlefish hybrid, but when said movie is an installment in the JP franchise, well…I can’t help but get nervous.

Don’t screw this up, guys. Do NOT screw this up.

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Blundering nincompoops and sneering sadists

A few weeks ago, as you might recall, I expressed some frustration with the way AMC’s Turn indulges in some common stereotypes about British officers in the Revolutionary War.

Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy’s book The Men Who Lost America has won the George Washington Book Prize, and speakers at the ceremony noted this tendency to remember the British commanders as either villains or fools:

In a statement praising the winner, Adam Goodheart, director of Washington College’s C.V. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience, said: “Countless popular books and Hollywood films have portrayed the redcoats and their leaders as blundering nincompoops at best, sneering sadists at worst. O’Shaughnessy’s work ought to kill these stereotypes once and for all — and, in the process, give Americans a richer and more nuanced understanding of our nation’s origins.”

…Publishers in the U.K. told O’Shaughnessy that “no one wants to read about wars we lost.” But he had long been troubled by what he called “a tendency to parody the British commanders as aristocratic buffoons, which was even more pronounced in Britain than in the U.S. It is a thesis that is perpetuated in movie caricatures, popular history and even college text books.”

These stereotypes about the British serve as a foil to what we Americans would like to believe about our own ancestors.  If the British were “sneering sadists,” then the Patriots’ virtue looks that much more sterling by comparison, even though Whigs could be extremely brutal to Tories in American-controlled territory.  And if the British were “blundering nincompoops,” it makes sense to believe that the Americans could defeat them with nothing but pluck and good old Yankee ingenuity, even though American commanders like Washington and Greene knew that the only way to defeat the British regulars was to create an army with the same discipline, hierarchy, and professionalism.

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Filed under American Revolution, History and Memory

Follow me as I commence tweeting into the void

I’ve always been reluctant to join Twitter. I’m so long-winded that I never thought I’d be good at it.  But when I contacted my advisor a few weeks ago to ask him about classes for my first semester as a doctoral student, he recommended I create a Twitter account and use it to keep up with what’s going on in my field.

So as of today, you can start following me @mlynch5396.  It’ll be just like this, only in smaller doses.

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Filed under History on the Web

Anchors aweigh

During my short trip to Baltimore I had the chance to visit a really neat museum in the Inner Harbor—and I mean literally in the Inner Harbor.

Historic Ships in Baltimore is a collection of four vessels and one lighthouse.  You just pick a ticket option depending on how many of the ships you want to see and then tour them in whatever order you please and at your own pace.  The star attraction is this lovely lady, the USS Constellation.

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Specifically, she’s the second Constellation.  The first was one of the six frigates approved for construction in the 1790s, and saw service in the Quasi-War, the War of 1812, and against the Barbary pirates.  She circumnavigated the globe in the 1840s, but that was her last hurrah.  The next decade saw her torn apart for scrap just as construction began on the second Constellation, the one currently on display in Baltimore.

At some point in the twentieth century there was a lot of confusion surrounding the relationship between the two vessels, with a lot of folks thinking they were actually the same ship, the second one having supposedly been fashioned out of the original in the 1850s.  (For a thorough analysis of the brouhaha, check out this report.)  As of now the debate has been pretty conclusively resolved, and the ship sitting in the Inner Harbor is interpreted as a Civil War-era vessel, allowing visitors to get a firsthand look at the twilight of the Age of Sail.

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The second Constellation started her career in the Mediterranean, and then patrolled the coast of West Africa in search of slave ships, the trade in human cargo having been outlawed.  This is an aspect of U.S. naval history I hadn’t heard much about, but it’s one of the topics explored in the small museum alongside the vessel.  The exhibit also includes quite a few original artifacts from Constellation‘s very long career.  She returned to the Mediterranean during the Civil War to search for Confederate prey, and was still in service during WWI as a sort of floating classroom for naval recruits.

The view from the helm:

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In addition to the standard exhibit signage, visitors get a handheld audio device to take with them.  When you enter the number of each tour stop into the keypad, you hear a little recorded dialogue between a kid and a Civil War-era sailor who explains how the different ship components worked and what life on board was like.

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I’m not a tall guy, but I had to stoop a little to move around belowdecks.  I can’t even begin to imagine how chaotic it would’ve been in this confined space when the guns went into action:

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The captain’s cabin, ready to entertain fellow officers or a group of dignitaries from shore:

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Dining arrangements for the average seaman weren’t quite as genteel.

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One of the added bonuses of taking the Water Taxi is getting a close-up look at Constellation‘s starboard side.

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The second-coolest vessel in the Historic Ships collection is the WWII submarine USS Torsk, moored alongside the National Aquarium.

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A section of the controls.  I’d add more info here, but I have no idea what any of these buttons and levers are for.  I can’t even drive a manual transmission.

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On August 14, 1945 two Japanese frigates found themselves at the business end of these torpedo tubes and became the last enemy vessels sunk by the U.S. in WWII.

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There’s a lot for history buffs to do in Baltimore, but I’d rate Historic Ships as a must-see if you’re planning a trip to the city.

Within spitting distance of the ships is another treat for Civil War aficionados.  Just across the water from the Constellation is Federal Hill.  In 1789 Baltimoreans gathered here to ring in the Constitution.

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By 1861 the city’s attitude toward the national government had soured just a wee bit, so Union troops fortified Federal Hill to keep things in line.

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Another ginormous dinosaur from Argentina

We’ve got a new contender for biggest dino:

A team of scientists in Argentina have unearthed the remains of the largest species of dinosaur discovered to date, paleontologists announced Saturday.

Seven “huge” herbivorous dinosaurs were discovered at one site in the province of Chubut, Argentina, according to the Paleontological Museum Egidio Feruglio, which led the dig.

The new species are estimated to have been 40 meters in length and 80 tons in weight, surpassing the previous record-holder for the world’s largest dinosaur — the Argentinosaurus.

These dinosaur size rankings always come with a few caveats. Back in the 1870s, a fossil collector working for the famous naturalist Edward Drinker Cope found part of a backbone and femur from a long-necked dino that Cope named Amphicoelias fragillimus.  Comparing Cope’s report of the remains’ size to the same parts from better-known dinos indicates that A. fragillimus was far and away the longest dinosaur of all time—as in close to 200 feet from tip to tip.  The problem is, Cope’s published account is all we have, because the bones themselves are gone.  It’s possible they were in such a poor state of preservation that they just crumbled to pieces.

And a reported dino from India named Bruhathkayosaurus supposedly approached Amphicoelias in size, but the initial description was iffy and the specimen got washed away in a flood.

Anyway, this latest find means yet another humungous dinosaur from Argentina, a country with a track record of producing some of the biggest of all terrible lizards.  In addition to Argentinosaurus, it was also home to Giganotosaurus, one of the biggest carnivorous dinos.  We’ll be seeing him again in the very near future.  (Here on the blog, I mean, not out in the real world.  That would either be really, really awesome or really, really unfortunate.)

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Filed under Gratuitous Dinosaur Posts