One of the interesting things about reenactors is that they have to devote extensive attention to questions that would never occur to the rest of us—even those of us who are fascinated with history. Questions involving facial hair, for example.
For the eighteenth century, the answer would seem to be simple, at least at first glance. In depictions of gentlemen from this era, facial hair is practically unheard of. Hence this admonition from a Rev War reenacting group:
18th century men did not wear beards, goatees, soul patches or long sideburns. (Yes, some German troops did sport waxed moustaches and Edward Teach, the infamous pirate wore a trademark black beard early in the century – but these are rare exceptions which had purpose in what they did.) Whatever you may have seen in movies – or even on reenactors – men simply didn’t wear beards during this era.
The German exception is an interesting one, and has always puzzled me. Some Hessian units did indeed sport mustaches, and facial hair was also de rigueur in certain European hussar and grenadier units. I’ve never understood why. Whenever I see a film clip or painting with Continentals going toe-to-toe against mercenaries with Super Mario Bros. mustaches, it always looks odd.
For most soldiers and civilians, however, going clean-shaven was the ideal. But in terms of what actually happened on campaign, of course, things were probably quite a bit more complicated. For one thing, the fact that officers were telling their men to shave regularly doesn’t mean the men were actually doing it. If you look at Rev War orderly books, you’ll notice that commands regarding the troops’ appearance were repeated over and over again with ever-increasing tones of irritation, indicating that soldiers weren’t too compliant about this sort of thing. Indeed, in his magnificent book on the Continental Army, Charles Royster states that “the most common of the soldiers’ signs of independence were hair and hats.” This refers chiefly to the length of the hair on top of the head, but given this kind of independent streak there were probably a few oddballs in camp who were letting their chins get stubbly just to be ornery.
More importantly, and probably more commonly, the exigencies of warfare meant that soldiers were periodically unable to keep up their usual routines. In December 1776, as retreating American troops crossed the Delaware River into Pennsylvania, Charles Wilson Peale remembered one soldier who approached him “in an old dirty blanket jacket, his beard long and his face full of sores,” and it turned out to be his own brother. His appearance was so ragged that Peale didn’t recognize him at first—probably the most sobering testimony to the harsh conditions in Washington’s Army that I’ve ever read.
Of course, this sort of hairiness must have been unusual, or else Peale probably wouldn’t have noted it. It was neither condoned nor typical, so Rev War reenactors are doubtless correct in discouraging facial hair for new recruits.
Still, this raises larger issues for reenactors that go beyond specific matters like facial hair to suggest some of the difficulties of trying to depict history as it was lived. Do you try to portray the ideal soldier, or do you indicate some of the minor infractions and hardships that arose from time to time? Should each member of the unit try to be as “typical” as possible, or should you try to suggest some of the diversity that must have been present? And if you’re going to try for the latter, how much is too much?
Reenacting, when done properly, is therefore a difficult enterprise, fraught with unique and delicate challenges. I think serious reenactors deserve the respect of anyone who researches or teaches history.
By the way, just a few days ago I ordered a used copy of Franklin and Mary Wickwire’s book on General Lord Cornwallis. It still has a sticker from the “Cottonwood Senior High” library, wherever that is. By a remarkable coincidence, it arrived today, as I was typing this post, and apparently some student at Cottonwood High thought eighteenth-century armies needed a little more facial hair, because this is what the cover looked like when I opened it:
Doesn’t look half bad, actually.