Today’s historical thought experiment comes to us courtesy of the eminent diplomat and accomplished ladies’ man Henry Kissinger.
In his massive (but engrossing) history of diplomacy, Kissinger describes how Cardinal Richelieu, that most pragmatic and unsentimental practitioner of seventeenth-century statecraft, redirected European political history. Richelieu successfully sought to magnify French power at the expense of the Holy Roman Empire. As Kissinger states, the cardinal “feared a unified Central Europe and prevented it from coming about. In all likelihood, he delayed German unification by some two centuries.…As a result, Germany developed no national political culture and calcified into a provincialism from which it did not emerge until late in the nineteenth century when Bismarck unified it.”*
Germany, then, did not enjoy the same political unity and economic vigor that other European powers were beginning to enjoy in the early modern period. One consequence of this, as Kissinger notes in passing, is that Germany “missed the early wave of European overseas colonization.”
Since he’s more concerned with the impact of Richelieu’s statecraft on later European diplomacy, Kissinger doesn’t explore the implications of this notion that delayed unification knocked Germany out of the running as a potential colonial power. But if you’re an early American historian, it provokes some interesting counterfactual speculation.European political history isn’t my specialty, so I don’t know if a seventeenth- or eighteenth-century German unification was as likely as Kissinger makes it out to be. But if German unification hadn’t been delayed, would Germany have created its own American empire alongside the New World colonies of the Spanish, French, Dutch, and English? And if so, what would that German America have looked like?
I’m not sure it’s possible to answer questions like this constructively. In order to describe a possible German-founded American colony we have to draw on what we know of early modern Germany, but a unified Germany capable of planting American colonies wouldn’t be the early modern Germany we know. This Catch-22 makes it hard to imagine what the relationship between the colonies and mother country would’ve been like, or what sort of political and economic order would’ve characterized the German colonies themselves.
Of course, a great many German migrants did settle in colonial America, which might offer a basis for thinking about the cultural life of these hypothetical colonies. But they did so as minorities and latecomers to the English colonies. Perhaps their experiences would have been quite different had they arrived earlier and lived in settlements founded under German auspices.
Many of the Central Europeans who did settle in colonial America were members of Protestant sects who maintained their distinctive religious identity in the New World, but it seems likely that a more unified Holy Roman Empire would have been able to enforce more religious conformity within its territory. Religious divisions, after all, contributed to the empire’s lack of cohesion. A politically unified Germany would probably have necessitated a more religiously uniform nation.
Then again, a religiously uniform Germany might have foisted its religious dissidents off on its colonies. Perhaps German America would have served as a haven for nonconformists in the same way that English America did.
That’s the thing about these broad historical counterfactuals. You have to make so many adjustments and account for so many possible variables that it’s easy to strain your tether to the actual history to a point where it snaps, and then you’re not engaged in a historically useful exercise anymore.
And in the end, maybe the presence of German colonies in early America wouldn’t have made that much difference. The demographic and economic power of English America was considerable, so maybe German colonies would have gotten gobbled up anyway, becoming the cultural, religious, and linguistic enclaves that the eventual German settlements actually were.
*This post is a lot more entertaining if you read this excerpt aloud in your best Kissinger voice. Go on, try it.