Tag Archives: Southwest Territory

John Sevier’s smack talk

I’ve been reading Massacre at Cavett’s Station by the eminent Tennessee archaeologist Charles Faulkner.  The titular massacre was one of the uglier episodes in the long history of white-Cherokee conflict on the Tennessee frontier.  It took place on September 25, 1793 when a massive war party (contemporary reports put their numbers as high as 1,500) headed for the territorial capital of Knoxville heard firing from the town and feared they’d lost the element of surprise.  Instead, they fell on Cavett’s Station several miles to the southwest, killing the thirteen men, women, and children who were there.

Remarkably, the Indians had managed to approach Knoxville without detection by John Sevier’s militia, but retaliation was not long in coming.  In what would prove to be his last Indian campaign, Sevier marched into Georgia and caught some of the perpetrators at Etowah, near present-day Rome.  The Indians were in a position to oppose the militia’s crossing of the Etowah River at the town, but when a party of the whites moved south to cross elsewhere, the Indians followed them and left the fording place near the town undefended.  The militiamen galloped back to Etowah, dispersing the defenders and putting the town to the torch.

Apparently Sevier decided that defeating the Indians wasn’t punishment enough, because he decided to up the ownage by sending them the following message, a copy of which is preserved in his journal:

Your murders and savage Barbarities have caused me to come into your Country Expecting you would fight like men, but you are like the Bairs and Wolves.  The face of a white man makes you run fast into the woods and hide, u see what we have done and it is nothing to what we shall do in a short time.  I pity your women & children for I am sure they must suffer and live like dogs but you are the Cause of it.  You will make War, & then is afraid to fight,—our people whiped yours mightily two nights ago Crossing the river and made your people run very fast.


To the Cherokees and their warriors if they Have Any.

Ouch.  Not much for the niceties of spelling and punctuation, but the guy definitely knew how to twist the rhetorical knife.

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Filed under Appalachian History, Tennessee History

Looking for a substantial research project?

Then consider writing a biography of an early national figure, particularly one from Tennessee.  Mark Cheatham is probably correct in guessing that “many graduate students who might be interested in writing biographies as dissertations are discouraged by their advisors.”

It’s a shame, because there are plenty of prominent early leaders about whom we just don’t know enough.  Both Gordon Belt and myself have lamented the lack of a good biography of John Sevier.  A few hagiographic treatments came out over a century ago, but as far as I can determine, the only scholarly attempt at a life of Sevier was Carl Driver’s, published back in the thirties.

William Blount’s life story would also make for a fascinating read.  A study of his conspiratorial dealings came out not too long ago, but as a member of the Constitutional Convention and governor of the Southwest Territory, Blount deserves a cradle-to-grave account, too.

In part, this dearth of early Tennessee biographies is symptomatic of a more general shortage of scholarship on the Volunteer State’s frontier period.  The good news is that those relatively few recent studies on early Tennessee history have been very good—such as John Finger’s overview of the Volunteer State’s early daysKevin Barksdale’s book on the Lost State of Franklin, and Cynthia Cumfer’s examination of early Tennessee’s three races.

But it’s also symptomatic of the surprising gaps that exist in the field of early American biography.  These gaps become readily apparent when you look at Rev War biography.  One thing that’s always struck me is the lack of a recent, full-scale life of Nathanael Greene, the remarkable general who took command in the South in late 1780 and turned that theater of war on its head, after having served under Washington in the major campaigns in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania.  Few men played a more critical role in the war.

Henry Knox, Washington’s resourceful artillery chief, also needs a full-scale, scholarly biography.  Don Higginbotham wrote a very good life of Daniel Morgan, but another look at the Old Wagoneer wouldn’t hurt, either.  Philip Schuyler and Horatio Gates could also stand intensive biographies.

Let me point out that all these men were general officers, and yet we have more abundant published work on some Civil War colonels than on these guys.  Biographies of British commanders are just as hard to come by, perhaps more so.  In a sense, Rev War historiography has leapfrogged over the old military history and gone straight to the new.

Grad students and young scholars in search of dissertation or book topics need not worry about running out of material.  There are enough dead white guys in search of their Boswells to keep us all busy for a while.

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Filed under American Revolution, Historiography, Tennessee History

The view from Rocky Mount

Last time I related the results of the weekend’s successful TomTom field test, and promised to post one of my historic site reviews for the destination.  It was one of those Tennessee frontier museums that I’d intended to visit for a long time and had just never gotten around to seeing.  I’m pleased to report that it exceeded my expectations.

Rocky Mount Museum is a historic house and farm in Piney Flats, up in Tennessee’s history-saturated northeastern corner.  The really surprising thing about the house is the fact that it’s still there at all.  William Cobb built it for his family in the early 1770’s, when permanent settlement in what became Tennessee was still in its infancy.  It’s got to be one of the oldest homes in the entire state.  It’s also quite a substantial structure.  If you’re expecting a tiny frontier cabin, you’re in for a surprise.  The main house has a good-sized parlor, two upstairs bedrooms, a dining room across a covered dogtrot-style passageway, and an additional room converted into an office.

This office is one of the things that makes Rocky Mount so significant.  After the State of Franklin dissolved in the late 1780’s, North Carolina finally and permanently ceded its western lands to the Federal government.  The area that’s now Tennessee was organized into the Southwest Territory, with North Carolina’s William Blount appointed governor.  From his arrival in 1790 until 1792 (when he moved to a new frame house in Knoxville that’s also become a nifty museum), Blount stayed with the Cobb family and conducted the territory’s business out of the downstairs office.  Rocky Mount was therefore the first capitol of the Southwest Territory, and Blount’s time here figures significantly in the tours and programming.

There are several other buildings to see besides the main house.  A detached kitchen, a smaller building that functions as a smokehouse and cloth-making area, and a slave cabin are also located on the grounds, along with a barn and livestock fields.  It’s a beautiful site with a gorgeous view; “Rocky Mount” wasn’t just Cobb’s creative nickname, because the house actually does sit on a high hill topped with rocky outcroppings.

The interpretive scheme relies heavily on first-person techniques and hands-on demonstration.  Teams of costumed interpreters conduct groups through the buildings.  All the guides working on the day we visited were extremely knowledgeable, not just about the site but about the Tennessee frontier and early American history in general.

In fact, the quality of the interpretation is one of Rocky Mount’s greatest strengths.  All too often I’ve found myself visiting a historic building and being led from room to room by a bored intern with the weary delivery style of a telemarketer.  You won’t find that here.  Rocky Mount’s guides are very engaging, and they know their stuff.  Ask a question about the most minor object tucked away in a corner, and they’ll not only identify it but also weave it into the larger story of life on the eighteenth-century frontier.  Is it homemade?  Yes, we make it out of such-and-such.  Where do you get the materials?  Well, this part comes from Mr. So-and-so’s store in Jonesborough, and then we get that part in monthly shipments from Virginia. 

And Mr. So-and-so’s store, and all the rest of it, is actually documented.  It’s not so much a tour as it is a step into a fully realized, fully recreated world, all based on painstaking research.  You get a sense of the household’s place within a genuine, living frontier community.

This is living history in its fullest sense—not just clothes and personas, but actually doing the kinds of things necessary to keep a 1790’s farm going.  After seeing the house, we headed over to the kitchen, where a guide showed us how to bank the cooking fire to keep the coals smouldering while she explained techniques for preparing practically every food and medical remedy you’d find on an eighteenth-century plantation.  Later, she took us past the garden, where we held the herbs up to our noses and smelled them, and then into an outbuilding to watch different kinds of fabrics being prepared, running them through our fingers to feel the difference.  I’ve toured a lot of historic home sites, and I’ve seen a lot of first-person interpretation, but rarely have I seen any of this done so well.

I’ve also got to say that the way the buildings are stocked and furnished is incredibly convincing.  Rocky Mount looks like a place where people live; if the Cobb family happened to show up, I imagine they could find everything they’d need to get by here.  Because the tours are guided, there aren’t barriers and cases all over the rooms to remind you that you’re in an artificial environment.

A museum and orientation film offer an introduction to the history of the Tennessee frontier, from the French and Indian War to the early statehood period.  Some of the exhibits are pretty dated, but they’re in the process of being updated, and they’re still worth a look, despite the wear and tear.  As You’ll be able to get an overview of the major events and personalities in early Tennessee history.  (Seeing the powder kettle Mary Patton used to supply the King’s Mountain expedition was a real treat for me, and one I wasn’t expecting.)

There is one thing I found a little odd, and that’s the selection of books for sale in the gift shop.  There are quite a few hard-to-find titles on local and nineteenth-century Tennessee history, but many of the works on the frontier that you usually see in Tennessee museums aren’t there.  I was particularly surprised not to find a copy of Walter Durham’s history of the Southwest Territory, which seems like such a natural fit.  But this is a minor point, and I don’t intend it as a criticism of the site’s overall quality.

I’d enthusiastically recommend a visit to Rocky Mount Museum to anybody who’s planning a trip through northeastern Tennessee.  And if you’re a Tennessean within driving distance of the Tri-Cities, you owe it to yourself to go.  My only regret is that I didn’t make it there sooner.

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Filed under Museums and Historic Sites, Tennessee History