If you don’t already follow the Age of Revolutions blog, keep an eye out for a series of posts they’re rolling out over the next seven weeks. Each piece looks at a dimension of the Native American experience in the American Revolution. The contributors include some of my favorite historians, so I was doubly honored and excited when AoR’s editors invited me to join in.
Tag Archives: American Revolution
So Turn: Washington’s Spies has run its course, and now you’re itching to know more about the history behind the show. Allow me to recommend some reading material.
I should note at the outset that this is a very Turn-centric selection. In other words, it’s not a well-rounded reading list on the American Revolution. This is intended mainly for those of you who are relatively new to the whole Rev War aficionado thing and want to start out by learning more about the people and events depicted in the series.
First, though, let’s take a look at some general histories of the era. My favorite overview is Alan Taylor’s American Revolutions: A Continental History, 1750-1804. It’s the most comprehensive and up-to-date single-volume book on the Revolutionary era available. If a narrative approach to the Revolution’s origins and military campaigns is more to your liking, try Robert Middlekauff’s The Glorious Cause. I think Middlekauff is better on the run-up to the war and the actual fighting than he is on the Revolution’s social dimensions and its aftermath, but Glorious Cause is still well worth a read. I’d also recommend two books by John Ferling: A Leap in the Dark for the Revolution’s political history and Almost a Miracle for the military side of the story. And Gordon Wood’s The American Revolution is a concise overview of what was at stake in the struggle for independence, as well as a distillation of an influential and insightful scholar’s life work.
Okay, now for books that deal directly with the show’s subject matter. Turn is all about espionage, and when it comes to Revolutionary spycraft, you can’t do better than John Nagy, author of George Washington’s Secret Spy War, Invisible Ink, Spies in the Continental Capital, and Dr. Benjamin Church, Spy. Of course, you can’t do a list of Turn-related books without mentioning Washington’s Spies, the story that inspired the series.
The most famous Revolutionary to put in an appearance in the series was the commander of the Continental Army. Joseph Ellis’s His Excellency is a great introduction to Washington and the qualities that made him exceptional. John Ferling’s First of Men is also quite good and remarkably balanced; in fact, Ferling has written a number of fine books on different aspects of Washington’s life and career. Both the one-volume abridgment of James Thomas Flexner’s biography and Ron Chernow’s life of Washington are also good reads. Robert Middlekauff covers the general’s rise to fame and the war years in Washington’s Revolution.
One of the reasons Benedict Arnold’s treason shocked so many Revolutionaries was the fact that he had been one of the most revered Patriot commanders. James Kirby Martin’s Benedict Arnold, Revolutionary Hero: An American Warrior Reconsidered examines the course of his career before he sold out to the British. Flexner’s The Traitor and the Spy covers Arnold, André, and the plot to hand over West Point. Peggy Shippen Arnold is the subject of a popular biography by Stephen Case and Mark Jacob. Another controversial Continental commander who appeared in the series was Charles Lee, the subject of recent biographies by Phillip Papas and Dominick Mazzagetti.
On the British side, the Queen’s Rangers figured prominently throughout the show’s run. Check out Donald Gara’s history of the unit. War on the Run by John F. Ross is an engaging look Robert Rogers’s exploits, but it’s mostly focused on the French and Indian War. While members of the British high command didn’t make too many appearances in the show, I also recommend The Men Who Lost America for a sense of the challenges imperial officials and generals faced in subduing the colonies.
What about Turn‘s African American characters? Gary Nash’s The Forgotten Fifth is a great and very concise overview of the Revolution’s impact on black colonists, both slave and free. Douglas Egerton’s Death or Liberty is also handy, and Benjamin Quarles’s The Negro in the American Revolution is a classic that’s still worth a read.
Another classic work that will give you some insight into the experiences of women like Mary and Anna is Liberty’s Daughters. Carol Berkin’s Revolutionary Mothers also deals with women’s participation in the struggle for liberty.
For life in the Continental Army’s camps and hospitals, Caroline Cox’s A Proper Sense of Honor is a very valuable work by a historian whose death was a tremendous loss to scholarship on the Revolution. And I’m a huge fan of Charles Royster’s A Revolutionary People at War, a fascinating look at how young officers like Tallmadge understood their own service and sacrifices.
Turn also featured some of the war’s most important campaigns and battles. Barnet Schecter’s The Battle for New York deals with the city that was ground zero for many of the early episodes. In the first season, Tallmadge is unconscious during the attack on Trenton; you can catch up on what he missed by reading David Hackett Fischer’s splendid book Washington’s Crossing. For Monmouth Courthouse, Joseph Bilby and Katherine Bilby Jenkins’s work is a good place to start, and if you want more detail, Fatal Sunday is outstanding. The British invasion of Virginia in 1781 is the subject of a brand new book, and Jerome Greene’s The Guns of Independence is a thorough examination of the Siege of Yorktown.
One final recommendation. The series didn’t shy away from the Revolution’s uglier aspects. For an examination of the war’s dark, violent, and bloody side, check out Holger Hoock’s Scars of Independence.
If any of you Rev War buffs have other Turn-related books you’d like to recommend, let us know in the comments.
While I was wrapping up my residential fellowship at the David Library of the American Revolution last month, DLAR librarian Katherine Ludwig and I sat down for a chat about my research.
<p><a href=”https://vimeo.com/226309860″>Meet the Fellows: Michael Lynch</a> from <a href=”https://vimeo.com/davidlibrary”>David Library of the Amer Rev</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a>.</p>
And here’s Kathy’s interview with Craig Bruce Smith, another DLAR fellow who I had the pleasure of meeting while I was staying there.
<p><a href=”https://vimeo.com/226312603″>Meet the Fellows: Craig Smith</a> from <a href=”https://vimeo.com/davidlibrary”>David Library of the Amer Rev</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a>.</p>
My time at the DLAR was by far the most fruitful and enjoyable research experience I’ve ever had. If you’re a scholar working on a Revolutionary era project, I strongly encourage you to pay them a visit.
Most of you probably know that the Museum of the American Revolution opened in Philadelphia a couple of months ago. I set aside some time to visit while staying in Pennsylvania. I’m happy to report that it exceeded my expectations.
The MAR’s use of technology, immersive environments, and full-scale tableaux with figures has invited comparisons to the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield. Personally, though, I found the MAR much richer in content, more judicious in its use of bells and whistles, and far more impressive in its assemblage of original material than the ALPLM.
At the Springfield museum I sometimes couldn’t shake the feeling that the designers were deploying all the latest gizmos (holograms, smoke, and deafening sound effects) not because each gimmick was the best tool for a particular interpretive need, but because the gimmicks were cool and they had money to burn. To borrow a phrase from my favorite film, they were so preoccupied with whether or not they could that they didn’t stop to think if they should. I never got that impression at the MAR. The content, and not the medium, is in the driver’s seat.
There’s quite a bit of stagecraft and showmanship, but it serves a pedagogical purpose. An interactive panel, for example, allows you to zero in on passages in Revolutionary propaganda pieces to dive into the meanings of particular phrases, or to place each document on a timeline of broader events.
Figures in life-size tableaux are so prominent at the ALPLM that you almost get the impression they’re the main course of the meal, with the artifacts as a garnish. Not so at the MAR. The tableaux in Philly are interpretive tools, the icing on the cake. But they’re also quite evocative. Here the artist-turned-officer Charles Wilson Peale encounters a bedraggled fellow soldier during the Continental Army’s disastrous retreat in late 1776. The man turns out to be his own brother, barely recognizable after weeks of hard campaigning.
But the heart and soul of the MAR exhibits are the artifacts, and they’re spectacular. Never in my life have I seen such a remarkable assemblage of objects from the Revolutionary era. Weapons used on the war’s very first day at Lexington and Concord…
…a timber from the bridge where the “shot heard ’round the world” was fired…
…Washington’s uniform sash…
…a signed copy of Phillis Wheatley’s book of poems…
…the sword Hugh Mercer carried when he fell at Princeton…
…John Paul Jones’s spyglass…
…and the museum’s crown jewel, Washington’s headquarters tent, with a place of honor inside its own auditorium (where photography, alas, is not permitted.)
Ordinary civilians and soldiers get representation, too. A simple canteen carried during the campaign for New York…
…an original fringed hunting shirt, one of only a handful still in existence…
…the remnants of Hessians’ caps…
…and an especially poignant object, a pair of slave shackles small enough to fit a child.
Each exhibit case bristles with so many fascinating artifacts that part of the fun of touring each gallery is the anticipation of what you’ll find in the next one.
Of course, a successful exhibit requires not only objects for the cases, but the proper interpretation and contextualization of those objects. Here, too, the MAR impressed me. The introductory film provides a solid introduction to what was at stake in the Revolution, and the exhibits place the struggle for independence in the context of wider transformations across the British Empire. The museum’s narrative gives us the Revolution’s heroism and its high ideals along with its contradictions, unfulfilled promises, and the fearsome cost in suffering it imposed on the people who lived through it. If any layperson came to me asking where they could get a sound and incisive overview of the subject, I wouldn’t hesitate to send them there.
There are only two aspects of the museum I’d criticize. I’m pleased that the MAR sets aside significant space for the Revolution’s frontier and Native American dimensions. But the Native perspective is almost entirely that of one particular tribe: the Oneidas, who (perhaps not coincidentally) made a substantial donation to the museum. The focus on a single tribe has its advantages; visitors get a compelling look at the Oneidas’ difficult decision to support the American cause. The drawback is that there isn’t much room left to tell the stories of other Indian communities, many of whom made very different choices. Additional space devoted to the tribes that took up arms against the young United States or tried to play different powers against one another would convey a more well-rounded, representative portrait of the Revolution’s impact on Native Americans.
My other criticism owes a lot to the fact that I’m a Southern Campaign guy. Many popular presentations of the Revolution give short shrift to the war in the South. You get thorough coverage of the battles in the North, but once the war moves to the Carolinas and Georgia it’s only a few general remarks about partisan warfare and perhaps a reference to Morgan’s tactical master stroke at Cowpens. Cornwallis ends up in Virginia to surrender to Washington and the French, but the details of how he ended up there are often sketchy; it’s almost as if Yorktown was a freak accident. The MAR’s coverage of the war unfortunately follows this formula. The exhibits on the war’s beginnings in New England, the fall of New York, Washington’s counter-thrust across the Delaware, Saratoga, the capture of Pennsylvania, and Valley Forge are superb, but when the narrative reaches the war in the South, it doesn’t quite stick the landing. The gallery devoted to the Carolinas and Georgia is given over mainly to Cowpens, with some remarks on initial British successes, the relationship between the Southern Campaign and slavery, and a bit on the viciousness of partisan fighting.
Still, if the exhibit on the war in the South is more or less a Cowpens gallery, it’s an exceptionally impressive Cowpens gallery. The life-size figures of Tarleton’s dragoons convey something of their fearsome reputation…
…and I got a kick out seeing artifacts associated with the units mauled at Cowpens: the 71st Highlanders, British Legion, and 17th Light Dragoons.
I should add that the skimpier treatment of the South applies only to the galleries devoted to the war itself. In its treatment of the Revolution’s other dimensions, the MAR’s geographic balance is admirable. You never get the sense that the non-importation movement was solely a Boston affair.
And in any case, I don’t want to dwell on those few things about the museum that irked me, because the experience as a whole was so remarkable. I enjoy museums, but it’s not often I get so excited while I stroll through one. This is the American Revolution for everybody—enough breadth to encompass the story, enough showmanship to engage visitors of all ages, and more than enough striking material on display to satisfy even the most hardcore history buff. From now on, anyone planning that historical sightseeing trip to Philadelphia is going to have to budget for an extra day. The MAR is a first-rate destination in its own right, and one nobody should miss.
The harshest winter of the war wasn’t 1777-78, but the place where the Continental Army toughed it out has become synonymous with the hardship and perseverance associated with the Revolution. It’s on every Rev War buff’s bucket list, so I had to take a day off from scanning microfilm to visit while I was in the area.
Valley Forge’s prominent place in American sentiment was evident from the crowds. Acre for acre, it was possibly the busiest national historical park I’ve visited with the exception of Gettysburg. It was one of the busiest places in America during the months the army spent there, too. In fact, the encampment was one of the country’s largest population centers.
The army’s first camp during the siege at Boston was a hodgepodge of structures. Valley Forge, for all its misery and squalor, at least had standardized cabins laid out in regular lines.
If the reconstructed accommodations for officers look quaint and cozy…
…the prospect of spending weeks in the enlisted men’s quarters is downright chilling.
The memorial arch is one of the most impressive monuments I’ve ever seen at a Rev War site. Civil War battlefields tend to be more ostentatious in their adornment.
Washington had much finer quarters than the common soldiers, but the material perks came with a crushing weight of responsibility.
He shared the home with his “family” of staff and servants, whose accommodations were more modest—though still far preferable to the cramped huts of the enlisted men.
Valley Forge was in the Goldilocks zone for a winter encampment: close enough to occupied Philadelphia to keep an eye on the British, but far enough away to provide some security. The terrain also made it a position amenable to defense. In the same way, several factors made it an ideal location for the iron production that gave it its name: abundant wood, running water, and ore. British troops burned the ironworks not long before the Continentals moved in. Archaeologists dug up traces of the forge in the twentieth century, and some of the bits and pieces are on display near Washington’s headquarters.
Henry Knox set up the artillery park in a spot from which he could rush cannon to any point in the event of an attack. Luckily for the Americans, the British never mounted an assault on the encampment. (Sir William Howe wasn’t exactly a go-getter.) The only combat at Valley Forge was a skirmish between Americans and redcoats before the whole Continental Army moved in.
The place wouldn’t be complete without a monument to Baron von Steuben…
…gazing out over the field where the Continentals celebrated the Franco-American alliance with a feu de joie.
The Washington Memorial Chapel is an active Episcopal church, and one of the loveliest features of any national historical park.
It’s also one of the few churches in the country with its own Rev War archaeology exhibit.
The crossing of the Delaware River is probably the Revolutionary War story we cherish the most, or maybe a close second behind Paul Revere’s ride. Since I’m spending the month within walking distance of the site where it went down, I had to head over and check it out for myself.
Perhaps I should say the sites where it happened, because Pennsylvania and New Jersey each have a historic park on their respective banks of the Delaware devoted to Washington’s crossing. Here’s the view from Washington Crossing Historic Park in the Keystone State.
Washington’s army made it across without mishap. I haven’t been so lucky. A couple of days ago I drove over to New Jersey for some groceries, and I got so caught up in the historic view from the bridge that I forgot how doggone narrow it is. There went my passenger side mirror. Looks like I’ll be visiting an auto shop when I get home.
Washington himself stands atop a column near the visitor center, wrapped in his cloak and gazing across the water toward Trenton and the Hessian garrison.
Closer to the riverbank, near the spot where the troops likely embarked, is a more modest monument.
WCHP’s visitor center boasts a relic of the Franco-American alliance.
If you take the tour, you’ll get an up-close look at the Durham boats the reenactors use for the annual commemorative crossing. They seemed larger in person than I was expecting.
If you peer inside, you’ll notice a conspicuous absence of seats. Leutze was quite right to paint Washington standing. It’s all those guys sitting around him that make the painting inaccurate. (Well, that and the sunlight.)
The first time I drove into town, I freaked out when I spotted the McConkey Ferry Inn. I don’t remember where it was—I think it was that A&E movie with Jeff Daniels—but somewhere I’ve seen a depiction of the crossing where Washington sets up his headquarters here. It was the one thing at WCHP I was most excited to see. Turns out it wasn’t Washington’s HQ after all; in fact, it wasn’t even there in 1776. The oldest parts of the current building date from 1790. Samuel McConkey was operating a ferry from this spot that Christmas night, but nothing remains of the Rev War-era structure except the basement. Still, this is a nicely restored building, and well worth a visit.
A few miles down River Road from the McConkey inn and the visitor center is the park’s upper section. Tradition holds that American troops monitored enemy activity from atop Bowman’s Hill. There’s little evidence they did so, but at least we got an impressive tower out of the story. Built during the Great Depression, it commemorates the Continental occupation of the area during the winter of ’76/77.
An ascent to the top of Bowman’s Hill Tower gives you a nice view of the region the Americans and Hessians were contending over.
This structure was there during the time of the crossing: the Thompson-Neely House. Home to a prosperous milling family, it became a hospital for sick and wounded Continentals when the army moved in. William Washington, who went on to dramatic exploits in the Southern Campaign, spent time here. So did James Monroe, another Virginia officer who had quite a career ahead of him.
Washington and Monroe made it through that winter alive, but for James Moore, a New York captain of artillery, the Thompson-Neely property was the last stop. He’s buried not far from the house…
…alongside comrades whose names are unknown. Moore’s original gravestone is on display in the visitor center.
The graves face the Delaware Canal, which dates to the 1830s. Ever wonder how the Pennsylvania coal that powered the Industrial Revolution’s factories got from point A to point B? Here’s your answer. Boats laden with anthracite were hitched to mules, and the mules walked along the canal bank, pulling the cargo behind through the water. The advent of steam engines marked a revolution in manufacturing, but it took old-fashioned animal power to keep the machines going.
Over on the New Jersey side of the river is Washington Crossing State Park. If you’re an artifact aficionado, don’t miss seeing Harry Kels Swan’s exceptional collection of Rev War objects in the museum. The exhibit cases are packed to bursting with muskets, bayonets, swords, personal items, and documents signed by a who’s who of Revolutionary luminaries. The officer’s model Ferguson rifle is especially nifty. (Unfortunately, they don’t allow photos inside, so no eye candy here.)
While McConkey handled ferry traffic from the Pennsylvania side, Garret Johnson operated the ferry from Jersey. The Johnson Ferry House is still there, and since it’s just uphill from the riverbank, there’s a good chance Washington and the other high-ranking officers spent time inside, cursing the awful weather and anxiously awaiting the end of the operation.
Here’s the view from the Jersey side, looking back toward Pennsylvania.
While Durham boats carried the troops, the artillery and horses crossed over on flat-bottomed ferry boats like the one you can still see at the New Jersey landing site.
The Garden State has its share of monuments devoted to the crossing, too.
Finally, this trail past the Johnson Ferry House follows the same road the soldiers took to their victory at Trenton—a victory born of equal parts audacity and desperation.
Greetings from Washington Crossing, PA! I’ve settled in for my fellowship here at the David Library of the American Revolution, and I’m blissfully happy. If there’s a perfect place to do research, I think I’ve found it.
What makes the DLAR exceptional is the concentration of material. Rather than making a half-dozen trips to far-flung repositories, you can sit under one roof with thousands of books and microfilm reels at your fingertips.
I’m especially lucky to be here while the library is hosting a series of lectures by former fellows. On Wednesday Holger Hook discussed his new book on violence in the Revolution, which I think will be an important corrective to the notion of a restrained, limited War of Independence. Next week we’ll hear from Judith L. Van. Buskirk, who will talk about her work on African American soldiers.
Since there are so many important Rev War sites within an hour’s drive—and one just a mile down the road—I’m hoping to do a little historical touring while I’m here. For now, though, it’s time to dive back into this incomparable collection.